There is still much research in progress to put together the history of human migration. Evidence comes from DNA, fossils, and archeology. The following description is an ongoing story, but many of the main points appear to be standing the tests of ongoing studies. Much of it will be modified in the future, but the basic outline and date ranges are most likely true.
The first hominin to leave Africa was Homo erectus, about 1.8 million years ago. A more modern hominin, Homo antecessor colonized Europe from Africa about 800,000 years ago to be followed by Homo heidelbergensis moving into Euorpe around 600,000 years ago. It is thought by most researchers that the last group gave rise to the Neanderthals.
Modern humans evolved 200,000 years ago; fossils and DNA agree. Fossil evidence indicates that modern humans left Africa around 125,000 years ago passing through today's Israel. A second wave appears to have crossed the Red Sea shortly after. Evidence comes from stone tools and other archeological data; there are no DNA findings that help us here. These early movements out of Africa however were not successful in the long run and they either did not survive or were assimilated. DNA analysis also indicates we almost went extinct and had a population crash down to 8,000 - 10,000 individuals around 70.000 to 90,000 years ago. Our ancestors lived by finding refuge along the coasts due to severe African droughts during this time and lack of food.
DNA also tells us about 60,000 years ago a small founder population of 60 - 1000 left East Africa and finally were able to colonize the globe successfully. This group is noted by haplogroup L3 in mtDNA studies. Only descendents of L3 are found outside Africa. Surprisingly, the first successful wave may have followed the coast line to Australia. The next wave went into the Middle East and down into India. Subsequent migrations went up into Euroasia and finally swung westward into Europe about 40,000 years ago. The group in Europe interbred to some extent with Neanderthals. No human DNA has been found in Neanderthal DNA and humans in Africa do not have Neanderthal DNA; it was a one way transfer. The group in Asia interbred to some extent with Denisovans. Modern humans share 1 - 4% of our DNA with Neanderthals. Humans in the Melanesian area along with Australian Aborigines share 4 - 6% of DNA in common with the Denisovians. Thus, there were two migration waves into Asia; the second wave at 30,000 years ago did not interbreed with the Denisovans. The first wave into North America may have involved only 10 - 20 individuals. Details will probably undergo further revision as more discoveries are made. Modern humans did not originate off an ark in the Middle East. We are all African. The Americas were not populated from the Middle East as detailed in Mormon scriptures. This also means there was no global flood and no ark (already disproven from the geological evidence, biogeograhpy and common sense when critically examining the Flood myth).
(From: Wikipedia. African mitochondrial DNA markers and Human migration)
Our species evolved from hominid ancestors about 200,000 years ago and not from two individuals in a garden. The "Fall" is a theological invention and if a worldview is established upon it, it has been falsified by the newer DNA data. How? Because ERVs, pseudogenes and transposons are shared between markedly different species in a nested heirarchy derived from multiple independent lines of evidence. If sin entered the world at the "Fall", there should be a mess of broken and mutated genes that would not demonstrate a pattern of evolutionary common descent. Newer studies in the neurosciences indicate we probably have no free will and consciousness emerges from the mind which is a function of the organic brain. The theological traditions that underly three Abrahamic faiths and billions of believers are falsified by DNA carried by everyone on the planet, ironically even by those who support the mythology of scriptural origins.
(From: Wikipedia. Migration of humans from mitochondrial DNA markers)
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